Civil war in ireland 1922 23
The Irish Civil War 1922–23 by Peter James CottrellIn a sequel to his successful best-selling ESS 65 The Anglo-Irish War, Peter Cottrell explores the devastating conflict that tore Ireland apart, shortly after peace had been declared. He focuses on the short but bloody battles that witnessed more deaths than the preceding years of the War of Independence. Examining the many factions that played a part in the fighting, and more often in the terror and counter-terror operations, Cottrell highlights the contrasting styles of leadership and the conduct of combat operations by the IRA and the National Army. He uses detailed tactical maps to explain the tactics that ranged from urban warfare and street-fighting to the final siege of Limerick city. A bitter sequence of attack and reprisal, the Irish Civil War was a complex social and political battle to change the nature of government and politics in Ireland. This book primarily discusses the military operations, but also places these in the wider context of the personalities involved, including Liam Lynch and Michael Collins. It also assesses the impact of the war on civilian life, and its influence on the politics of Ireland at national and international levels thereafter. This is not only the story of one country, but also of the relationships between Ireland and Britain, and Ireland and America, which have had a profound impact on modern politics for decades.
Irish Civil War
Paul V. By the standards of the 'Great War' it was very small indeed; roughly 3, deaths were inflicted over a period of eleven months, probably less than the average casualties suffered on the Western Front during a quiet week. The Civil War contributed directly to the character of Ireland and Anglo-Irish relations, creating patterns that have only begun to be challenged in the past thirty years. As with all civil wars, this conflict generated extremes of bitterness that have haunted public and political life in Ireland up to the present day. Indeed, it is only after the passage of seventy-five years that scholars are able to approach the subject of the Civil War with some degree of detachment. Significantly the two main political parties in Ireland, Fianna Fail and Fine Gael, are the direct descendants of the opposing sides of the war. Although partition was an established fact at the beginning of the war, the conflict in the South only served to further undermine any possibility of reunification.
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The town was flooded with pro-Treaty troops., Between the Easter Rising and the Anglo-Irish Truce of July , the nationalist project in Ireland reached its apotheosis with the emergence of an effective mass movement for an Irish Republic that achieved a remarkable degree of unity even as it accommodated a diverse collection of interests.
On the basis of a misguided agreement with Britain the all-island, thirty-two county Irish Republic would be overthrown and replaced with a partitioned, twenty-six county Irish Free State. However, this independent dominion of the British Empire would not come into formal existence until the 6th of December Up to that date the southern half of the country would live under the upstart rule of the Provisional Government, a transitional authority given twelve months to transform the state proclaimed in April , and ratified in successive plebiscite elections, into its British-countenanced replacement. From the 16th of January this self-appointed administration of Pro-Treaty men would operate with little democratic oversight or mandate, existing in a twilight zone of legality and constitutionality. This small military body was the pro-agreement splinter of the IRA, and despite its grand title it began as little more than a personal militia answerable only to Collins and his immediate associates in Dublin city and county. Meanwhile he was simultaneously setting up rival bodies seeking to replace both. The organisation would dominate national government on the island for the next decade and more, using the mass executions, imprisonments and expulsions of the counter-revolutionary struggle and its aftermath to retain power in the Twenty-Six Counties.
The conflict was waged between two opposing groups of Irish nationalists : the forces of the new Irish Free State, who supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty under which the state was established, and the republican opposition, for whom the Treaty represented a betrayal of the Irish Republic. The government of the Irish Free State established as a provisional government in January and as a full government in December was ultimately victorious. The anti-Treaty forces called a ceasefire in April and ordered their men to "dump arms" in May The war involved both conventional warfare late June—August when the Free State forces took the major towns and cities, and then a longer period of guerrilla warfare September —April as the anti-Treaty forces were gradually brought to a standstill. Statistics are incomplete, Free State government sources stated that between and National Army soldiers were killed in the war. Historian Michael Hopkinson, in Green against Green, p. Mulcahy stated that around pro-Treaty troops were killed between the Treaty's signing and the war's end; the government referred to army deaths between January and April